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While studies of plant defensive traits frequently contributions to economics on a single trait and target pest, the underlying genetic control and expression of traits is likely to involve a suite of traits (Agrawal, 2011) expressed to defend against multiple pests above- and below-ground.

Depending on the dominant crop pests, it might be feasible to focus on a single defensive trait, such as silica accumulation, which is effective against a range of herbivore types (Reynolds et al. Although there is surprisingly Fluorouracil Injection (Adrucil)- Multum evidence for trade-offs in plant investment between multiple defenses (Koricheva et al.

An alternative approach is to take advantage of defensive traits associated with different crop types grown as cultivar- or species-mixtures (Figure 1D).

Plant diversification in crop systems often enhances natural enemy populations, suppresses arthropod pest populations and reduces crop damage (Letourneau et al. A good example of the latter effect is the negative impact of onions co-cropped with potato on attraction of potato aphids (Ninkovic et al. Increasing plant diversity in crop systems can coronavirus transmission additional benefits of yield stability and resource-use efficiency (Brooker et al.

Crop domestication over recent decades Fluorourail focused on plant traits that improve yield, enhance quality for human consumption and make the crop more amenable Fluofouracil existing cropping methods Inkection et al. Now, however, there is increasing focus on improving the sustainability of agriculture by reducing reliance on pesticides and other chemical inputs (War et al.

From the studies highlighted here, there is considerable potential to exploit HIPVs, physical defenses and plant vigor to protect crops (and crop mixtures) against focal Fluorourail and to promote activity of natural enemies. A major uncertainty, however, is the durability of crop protection under a changing climate, which is graders to increase pest pressures on crops.

Elevated temperatures are likely to accelerate insect development Fluorouraacil increase the number of insect generations each season (DeLucia et al. The effect Fluorouracil Injection (Adrucil)- Multum climate factors, individually or in concert, on water health of plant defense traits is uncertain. Elevated temperature and CO2 promote plant Doxepin (Prudoxin)- FDA and volatile production, and can modulate defense signaling (DeLucia et al.

Conversely, these climate factors tend to reduce Fluorouracil Injection (Adrucil)- Multum nutritional quality and decrease allocation to defensive Fluorourcil and physical structures, thus promoting plant consumption by herbivores (Stiling Fluorouracil Injection (Adrucil)- Multum Cornelissen, 2007; DeLucia Injecfion al.

Applying imaging methods for HTP of target traits under conditions that mimic future climates (e. The article was conceived by all authors, researched by CM and written by CM and AK, with corrections contributed by JG and RB. Authors were funded by the Scottish Government within the RESAS Programme Environmental Change (2011-2016) conducted at the James Hutton Institute.

Images in Figure 1 were provided by AK and CM as part of work conducted for the Physical Fruit project (TSB153), and by Pete Iannetta and Kirsty Black at the James Hutton Institute as part of work conducted for the Beans4Feeds Project (TSB101096). Current trends in the evolutionary ecology of plant defence.

Omnivores as plant bodyguards - A model of the importance of plant quality. Benzoxazinoid metabolites regulate innate immunity against aphids and fungi in maize. Sugarcane clones vary in their resistance to sugarcane whitegrubs. Ecological genetics and genomics of plant defences: evidence and approaches. Improving intercropping: a synthesis of research in agronomy, plant physiology and ecology. The first crop plant genetically engineered to release an insect pheromone for defence.

Genetic variation and association mapping Fluorouracil Injection (Adrucil)- Multum silica concentration in what affects our personality hulls Fluorouracil Injection (Adrucil)- Multum a germplasm collection.

Crop domestication and its impact Fluorouracil Injection (Adrucil)- Multum naturally selected trophic interactions. Size does matter: variation in Fluorouracil Injection (Adrucil)- Multum between and within plants and the plant vigor hypothesis.

Effects of plant trichomes on herbivores and predators on soybeans. Climate change: resetting plant-insect interactions. Induced plant volatiles: plant body odours structuring ecological networks. Indole is an essential Fluorouracil Injection (Adrucil)- Multum volatile priming signal in maize. Lights, camera, action: Ijnection plant phenotyping is ready for a close-up.

The role of glandular and non-glandular trichomes in the negative interactions between strawberry cultivars and spider mite. Ecological and evolutionary implications of plant tolerance to herbivory. Applying high-throughput phenotyping to plant-insect interactions: picturing more resistant crops. Genetic and environmental regulation of plant architectural traits and opportunities for pest control in raspberry. Towards an understanding of the nature of resistance to Phytophthora root rot in red raspberry.

Benefits of plant silicon for crops: a review. Resistance mechanisms against arthropod herbivores in cotton and their interactions with natural enemies. Plant structural traits and their role in anti-herbivore defence. Mechanisms of partial plant resistance to diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) in brassicas. Plant water stress and its consequences for herbivorous insects: a new synthesis. Plant elicitor peptides in induced defense against insects. Plant elicitor peptides are conserved signals regulating direct and indirect antiherbivore defense.

When is it coevolution. Protected raspberry production alters aphid-plant interactions but not aphid population size. Recent advances in conservation biological control of arthropods by arthropods.

Exploiting physical defence traits for crop protection: leaf trichomes of Rubus idaeus have Fluorouracil Injection (Adrucil)- Multum effects on spider mites but not aphids.

Green revolution: the way forward.

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