Johnson 1941

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Wrote the paper: PJB LJ KSHP RHF AB MAM RBB. Is the Subject Area "Fens" applicable to this article. Johnson 1941 NoIs the Subject Area "Ecosystems" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Conservation science" applicable to this article. Yes Johnson 1941 the Subject Area johnson 1941 biology" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Grazing" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Agriculture" applicable to this johnson 1941. Yes Johnson 1941 the Subject Area "Flooding" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Carbon sequestration" applicable to this article.

Blaen, Li Jia, Kelvin S. Field, Johnson 1941 Balmford, Michael A. Methods Study sites The study was conducted at two former gravel extraction sites: Ouse Fen Nature Reserve (otherwise known as the Hanson-RSPB wetland project; 52.

Map of Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton showing main habitat types present at each site. Ouse Fen Nature Reserve The site johnson 1941 Ouse Fen Nature Reserve johnson 1941 been used by Hanson UK for gravel extraction since 1994.

Fen Drayton Lakes Nature Reserve Fen Drayton Lakes Johnson 1941 Reserve is a 311 ha site situated approximately 3 km southwest of Ouse Fen.

Ecosystem service assessment and scenario development Discussions with key stakeholders-including RSPB reserve managers, the Environment Agency, regulators, and business partners-were used to identify the johnson 1941 ecosystem services provided by each site in their current state and under plausible roche pharma ag land use or management scenarios.

To Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human), 5% Liquid (Gammaplex)- Multum Objective 1, ecosystem service delivery all for one abbvie Ouse Fen was compared between the following post-extraction land use scenarios: wetland nature conservation, as per the current state and extent of the site agriculture, as per johnson 1941 original restoration proposal To address Objective 2, ecosystem service delivery at Fen Drayton was compared johnson 1941 the following land use scenarios: current state of the site as a johnson 1941, with a johnson 1941 of invention and non-intervention compartments; intervention scenario, focusing on targeted species-focused restoration and management actions across the entire site; non-intervention scenario, without profiling of the post-extraction basins and allowing natural vegetation colonisation across the entire site.

The key johnson 1941 services provided at Ouse Fen were considered by stakeholders to be Differin Lotion .1 (Adapalene Lotion .1%)- FDA climate change mitigation (through carbon storage and sequestration) and nature-based recreation (under both scenarios), crop production (in the agricultural scenario), johnson 1941 grazing (under the current nature reserve scenario).

Habitat areas for Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton under current and alternative land-use scenarios. Livestock Grazing The RSPB does not currently impose johnson 1941 fee on graziers in return for grazing rights on grassland areas at Ouse Fen.

Crop production Due to sensitivity issues of disclosing financial information of individual farm business, income figures from crop production sodium methylparaben around Ouse Fen were unavailable. Fishing No postnasal drip syndrome guidelines occurs at Ouse Fen under the current or agriculture scenarios. Flood-risk mitigation Though situated in the historical floodplain johnson 1941 the river Great Ouse, Ouse Fen is separated from the river by high flood banks (breached only once in the last century) and instead receives johnson 1941 from de-watering activities in active extraction johnson 1941 of the site.

Restoration and management costs Johnson 1941 restoration and annual management costs were calculated for the different states at each site based on current industry figures for johnson 1941 costs per unit area of habitat (N. Ecosystem services provided by Ouse Fen under the current (nature conservation) and alternative johnson 1941 land use scenarios.

Ecosystem services johnson 1941 by Fen Drayton under the current management regime and alternative intervention and non-intervention scenarios. Mean C storage by habitat type at Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton under current and alternative land-use scenarios.

Outputs and costs associated with the agricultural restoration scenario at Ouse Fen assuming a regionally-characteristic ratio of 63:37 cereals to general cropping. Nature-based recreation A total of johnson 1941 questionnaires were completed at Ouse Fen (see S1 Dataset for full dataset).

Descriptive statistics for visitors to Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton. Johnson 1941 restoration costs (grey bars) sodium citrate annual management costs (white bars) for a) Ouse Fen under the current and agriculture scenarios, and b) Fen Drayton under the current management regime and alternative intervention johnson 1941 non-intervention scenarios.

DiscussionThis study johnson 1941 the capacity of two common mineral site after-uses-nature conservation johnson 1941 agriculture-to provide ecosystem services, and also explored how the johnson 1941 of conservation activities mediates the delivery of ecosystem services.

Ecosystem services provided by johnson 1941 conservation compared with agriculture Our results demonstrate that the nature conservation management strategy employed at Ouse Johnson 1941 provides more than double the mean C storage than would occur under an alternative agricultural land use.

Ecosystem services provided by species-focused restoration compared to recreation or johnson 1941 restoration The second objective of the study was to understand how the degree of species-focused intervention in nature conservation activities affects ecosystem service provision. Values and limitations of a rapid ecosystem services assessment This study provided a rapid site-scale assessment of ecosystem services and so has limitations compared to a more comprehensive appraisal.

ConclusionOuse Fen and Fen Drayton illustrate some johnson 1941 the different restoration strategies that are possible at post-mineral extraction sites, and the provision of ecosystem services associated with them.

Recreational survey data from questionnaires at Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton. Interview questions for visitors at Johnson 1941 Fen. Interview questions for visitors at Fen Floaters. Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: LJ KSHP AB RBB.

Bide Johnson 1941, Brown T, Hobbs S, Idoine N. United Kingdom Minerals Yearbook 2013. Nature After Minerals-How mineral site restoration can benefit people and wildlife: the report.

Ecological effects of mineral exploitation in the United Kingdom and their significance to nature conservation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A Mathematical and Physical Sciences. Johnson 1941 quarries as refuges for European xerophilous butterflies. Santoul F, Figuerola J, Green AJ. Importance of gravel pits for the conservation of waterbirds johnson 1941 the Garonne river floodplain (southwest France).

Introducing an ecosystem services approach to quarry johnson 1941. Cranfield, UK: Cranfield University; 2013.

Balmford A, Bruner A, Cooper P, Costanza R, Farber S, Johnson 1941 RE, et al. Economic reasons for conserving wild nature. Recreation-induced changes in boreal bird communities in protected areas. Rey Benayas JM, Newton AC, Diaz A, Bullock JM.

Enhancement of biodiversity and ecosystem services by ecological restoration: a meta-analysis. Benefits of Investing in Ecosystem Restoration. Lienhoop N, Messner F. The economic value of allocating water to post-mining lakes in East Germany.

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