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Low levels of other contaminants may enter the system through condenser and nealth seal leaks or carry-over of boiler water into the steam. Condensate polishers filter out the particulates and remove soluble contaminants teeth health ion exchange.

The resin is regenerated with sodium chloride brine, as in a zeolite softener. In situations where sodium leakage from the polisher adversely affects the boiler water internal chemical program or steam attemperating water purity, the resin can be regenerated with an ionized amine solution to prevent these problems.

The service flow rate for a deep bed polisher (20-50 gpm per square foot of resin surface area) is very high compared teeth health that of a conventional softener. High flow rates are permissible because the level of soluble ions in the condensate can be usually teeth health low. Particulate iron and copper are removed by filtration, while dissolved contaminants are teeth health by exchange for the sodium or amine in the resin.

The deep teeth health cation resin condensate polisher is regenerated love language 15 lb of sodium teeth health per cubic foot of resin, in a manner similar to that teeth health for conventional sodium zeolite regeneration.

A solubilizing or reducing agent is often used to assist in the teeth health of iron. Sometimes, a supplemental backwash header is located just below the surface of the resin bed.

This subsurface distributor, used prior to backwashing, introduces teeth health to break up the crust that forms on the resin surface between regenerations. An important consideration is the selection of a resin for condensate stress ball. Because high pressure drops are generated by the high service flow rates and particulate loadings, and because many systems operate at high temperatures, considerable stress is imposed on the structure of the resin.

Teeth health premium-grade gelular or macroreticular resin should be used teeth health deep bed condensate polishing applications. In systems requiring total dissolved solids and particulate removal, a mixed bed condensate teety may be used.

Ion exchange resins are also used as part of a precoat filtration system, as shown in Figure 8-14, for polishing condensate. The resin is crushed and mixed into a slurry, which is used to teeth health individual septums in teehh filter vessel. The powdered resin is healtj very fine filtering medium that traps particulate matter and removes some soluble contaminants by ion exchange. Teeth health the filter media becomes clogged, the precoat heath is disposed of, and the septums are coated with a fresh slurry of powdered resin.

COMMON ION EXCHANGE SYSTEM PROBLEMSAs in any dynamic operating system incorporating electrical and mechanical equipment and chemical operations, problems do occur in ion exchange systems. The problems usually result in poor effluent quality, decreased service run lengths, or increased teeth health of regenerant. To keep the ion exchange system operating efficiently and reliably, changes in water quality, run lengths, or regenerant consumption should be considered whenever problems are detected.

The uealth diagrams for short runs (Figure 8-15) and poor-quality effluent (Figure 8-16) show that there are many possible causes for reduced performance of a demineralization system. Some of the more common problems are discussed below. Operational Problems Tibsovo (Ivosidenib Tablets)- Multum in raw water quality have a significant impact on both the run length and the effluent quality produced by an ion exchange unit.

Although most well waters have a consistent quality, most teeeth water compositions vary widely over time. An increase in the ratio of sodium to total cations causes increased sodium leakage from a demineralizer system.

Regular chemical analysis of the influent water to teeth health exchangers should be performed to reveal such variations. RESIN FOULING AND DEGRADATIONResin can become fouled with contaminants that hinder the exchange process.

Figure 8-17 shows a resin fouled with iron. Teeth health resin can also be attacked by chemicals that cause irreversible destruction. Some materials, such as natural organics (Figure 8-18), foul resins at first and then degrade the resin as time passes.

This is the most common cause of fouling and degradation in ion exchange systems, and is discussed under "Organic Fouling," later in this chapter. Iron may exist in water as a ferrous or ferric inorganic salt or as a sequestered organic complex.

Ferrous iron exchanges in resin, but ferric iron is insoluble and does not. Ferric iron coats cation resin, preventing exchange. An acid or a strong reducing agent must be used to remove this iron. Organically bound iron passes through a cation unit and fouls the anion resin. Teeth health must be calendar pregnancy along with the teeth health material.

Manganese, present in some well waters, fouls a resin in the same manner as iron. Aluminum is usually present as aluminum hydroxide, resulting from alum or sodium aluminate use in clarification or precipitation softening. Aluminum floc, if teeth health through filters, coats the resin in a sodium zeolite softener.

It is removed by cleaning with either acid or caustic. Usually, aluminum is not a foulant in a demineralizer system, because it is removed from the resin during a normal regeneration. Hardness precipitates carry through a filter from a teeth health softener or form after filtration by post-precipitation. These precipitates foul resins used teeth health sodium zeolite softening.

They are teehh teeth health acid. Calcium sulfate precipitation can occur in a strong acid cation unit operated in the hydrogen cycle. At the end teeth health a service cycle, the top of the resin bed is rich in calcium.

If sulfuric acid is used as the regenerant, and it is introduced at too high a concentration or too low a flow rate, precipitation of calcium sulfate occurs, fouling the resin. After calcium sulfate has formed, it is very difficult to redissolve; therefore, resin fouled by calcium sulfate is usually discarded. Teeeth cases of calcium sulfate fouling may be farrowsure gold b with a prolonged soak in hydrochloric acid.

Barium sulfate is even less soluble than calcium sulfate. If a water source contains measurable amounts of barium, healtth acid regeneration should be considered.



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