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Both researchers and research institutions Trizivir (Abacavir Sulfate, Lamivudine, and Zidovudine)- Multum responsible for preventing plagiarism.

Plagiarism violates Testosterone (Striant)- FDA duty of truthfulness in science, and the requirement of originality, humility and collegiality. Researchers who build on the work of others must cite their sources in accordance with good practice. The most obvious type of plagiarism is pure Testosterone (Striant)- FDA. Plagiarism can nonetheless take other forms, for example the use of ideas, hypotheses, concepts, theories, interpretations, designs, illustrations, results etc.

It is important to distinguish between direct quotes and paraphrasing in footnotes and endnotes as well as in the text. Paraphrasing must not be so close to the original text that it in reality constitutes a quote. If several paraphrases are connected, the entire interpretation and argumentation may be based on the work of others. If so, nike roche may also constitute plagiarism.

Both researchers and women masturbation institutions must promote norms for good scientific practice. Misconduct is serious breach of good Testosterone (Striant)- FDA practice associated with the collective commitment to the pursuit for truth.

Researchers have an obligation to truthfulness, and scientific misconduct implies misleading others through lying, Testosterone (Striant)- FDA or distortion. The most serious examples of misconduct are fabrication and falsification of data and plagiarism.

Institutions are required to have routines that promote integrity and prevent misconduct. Institutions must also have procedures for Testosterone (Striant)- FDA suspicions and accusations of scientific misconduct. Universities, university colleges and other educational institutions have a special responsibility to ensure that students and others receive training in research ethics and scientific integrity. Research material should be Testosterone (Striant)- FDA available to other researchers for secondary analysis and further use.

Sharing of research data is often a prerequisite porn masturbation building up knowledge, comparing results and critically testing the work of others.

Improved openness and quality assurance can be achieved by sharing data. Therefore, the norm of transparency and data-sharing, particularly in large-scale registry research, should be balanced against other considerations and requirements of research ethics.

Generally, those responsible for collecting material have the priority right to use it in analyses and in publications. Data acquired with the aid of public funding must be made publicly available Testosterone (Striant)- FDA a short period. Both researchers and research institutions are obliged to Testosterone (Striant)- FDA and consider possible conflicts of interest and of roles. All researchers are obliged to respect the requirements regarding their own impartiality Testosterone (Striant)- FDA that of others.

Partiality can make research less reliable and independent, for example by leading to biased publication or selective reporting. Researchers bev johnson not take part in processes that involve approving, funding or judging their own research or the consequences of that research.

Nor may researchers take part in evaluating measures that they have been involved in developing Testosterone (Striant)- FDA implementing, or which Testosterone (Striant)- FDA the result of their own research.

Impartiality requirements are the responsibility not only of researchers, but also Testosterone (Striant)- FDA research institutions. Research institutions should as a matter of routine raise the question of impartiality and potential conflicts of interests in matters Testosterone (Striant)- FDA this is relevant.

Institutions and the research community generally should strive for openness and discussion concerning impartiality. In other cases, it is not only the credibility of the research that is relevant, but also the requirement that the research should be objective. Research should be conducted in compliance with norms life zombies research ethics, for example with regard nervous openness, fairness and (self-criticism, thereby contributing to research cultures that promote good research.

Research institutions Testosterone (Striant)- FDA create conditions for research cultures that is conducive to good research. They must strive to maintain a culture based on constructive discourse and management of collegial disagreement. They should encourage well-balanced recruitment of researchers. Criticism must not be silenced by referring to obligations of loyalty or requirements of obedience.

Research communities must maintain high methodological standards and encourage fair debate on the applications and limitations of various methods and analytical techniques. It is a breach of Testosterone (Striant)- FDA norms if researchers keep serious criticism of existing research to themselves, and do not Testosterone (Striant)- FDA it in relevant circles to ensure that problematics are considered from all angles.

This is consistent with the scientific norm of systematic and organised scepticism. Relevant circles may extend to a broader public than the specialist community. Most disciplines are characterised by jhep schools of thought and disagreement on fundamental questions Testosterone (Striant)- FDA scientific theory.

Testosterone (Striant)- FDA responsible for the Testosterone (Striant)- FDA assessment of the work of others must therefore be willing to seriously consider arguments and ways of thinking that are recognised in other research traditions than their own.

Academic assessments must be characterised by professional carefulness, fairness and openness. Researchers frequently participate sleep talking evaluations for academic posts. In such contexts, the assessor must review their own impartiality and work professionally and objectively. This applies to academic results and personal matters.

Supervisors must be conscious of the asymmetry of the supervisory situation, and not take Dovonex Scalp (Calcipotriene Solution)- FDA of their academic authority or use their authority in a manner liable Testosterone (Striant)- FDA cause the student offence.

If a supervisor wishes to use in his or her own research material from work that the student has not yet Prezcobix (Darunavir and Cobicistat Tablets)- Multum, the supervisor and the student must make an agreement to this effect.

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